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Friday, November 4, 2011

Information on Morphine addiction and withdrawals

Before the MorphineImage via WikipediaMorphine is used frequently in hospitals, especially in emergency room settings where a patient present in severe pain. In the right controlled setting Morphine like many other pain relievers is an effective drug when treating pain, however, those who obtain the drug illegally quickly become dependent on the drug and are quickly addicted. Morphine is a highly addictive substance. It can cause psychological dependence and physical dependence as well as tolerance, with an addiction potential identical to that of heroin. When used illicitly, a very serious narcotic habit can develop in a matter of weeks, whereas iatrogenic morphine addiction rates have, according to a number of studies, remained nearly constant at one case in 150 to 200 for at least two centuries.[citation needed] In the presence of pain and the other disorders for which morphine is indicated, a combination of psychological and physiological factors tend to prevent true addiction from developing, although physical dependence and tolerance will develop with protracted opioid therapy.

The stages of withdrawal from Morphine are as follows:

 Stage 1: Several hours after last dose, the addict will begin to have drug craving, and increased anxiety.

 Stage 2: By hour 15 since the last dose, an addict will begin showing increased tiredness and yawning,  perspiration,crying, running nose, dysphoria (An emotional state characterized by anxiety, depression, or unease), odd sleep patterns and behaviors.

 Stage 3: Up to one day after last dose, an addict may experience nasal discharge, and an increase in the above listed symptoms additionally, an addict will also have dilated pupils, raised bumps on skin ie: Goosebumps, muscle twitches, hot flashes, cold flashes, aching bones and muscles, loss of appetite and the beginning of intestinal cramping.

 Stage 4: One to 1 1/2 days after last dose, addict may experience an increase in all of the above  mentioned symptoms including severe cramping and involuntary leg movements, loose stools, insomnia, elevation of blood pressure, moderate elevation in body temperature, increase in frequency of breathing, tachycardia (rapid pulse) , restlessness, nausea

 Stage 5: One and a half to three days after last dose addict is likely to experience, an increase in the above listed symptoms, stay or revert to fetal position, vomiting, free and frequent liquid diarrhea,involuntary ejaculation, which is often painful, saturation of bedding materials with bodily fluids, weight loss due to fluid loss, increased white cell count and other blood changes.

 Stage 6: After completion of above: The addict may experience recovery of appetite, and normal bowel functions, may begin the transition to post-acute and chronic symptoms that are mainly psychological. However, there is in some cases an  increased sensitivity to pain, colitis or other gastrointestinal upsets, and high blood pressure related to motility, and problems with weight stability.
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